Avicenna (Persian: ابن سینا), Abu Ali Sina (Persian: ابوعلی سینا) or "Ibn Sina" as Easterns call him (980 – June 1037) was a Persian polymath (Hezarfen / a person with extensive knowledge in many different disciplines). He is considered one of the most significant doctors, astronomers, thinkers, writers, and scholars of the Golden Age of Islam period, and a physician known as the father of polymeric (Multiple fields) early medicine.
Khwarizmi, Al-Khwarizmi, Khwarizmi (The names may differ. Persian: خوارزمی) or full name Abu Jafer Muhammad bin Musa al-Khwarizmi (780, Khwarizm - 850, Baghdad); is a Persian scientist who worked in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, geography, and algorithms. Latin translations of his works on Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world in the twelfth century.
Jia Xian (Simplified Chinese: 贾宪, Traditional Chinese: 賈憲, Pinyin Alphabet: Jiǎ Xiàn, Wade-Giles /Beijing Chinese: Chia Hsien; 1010-1070) was a Chinese mathematician and astronomer. Besides the fact that he succeeded in defining Pascal's triangle in the eleventh century, he made many mathematical inventions and astronomical discoveries.
Brahmagupta (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मगुप) (598 – 668 AD) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He has two important works on mathematics and astronomy, the theoretical “Brāhmasphuṣasiddhānta (628)” and the more practical “Khaṇḍakhādyaka (665)”. Brahmagupta is the scientist who first gave the rules for trading with zero. Since the proofs are not offered, it is not known where Brahmagupta's mathematics was derived from.
Aryabhata (Devanagari/Indian and Nepalese alphabet: आर्यभट) (476 – 550 AD) was an Indian scientist from the classical Indian traditions of mathematics and astronomy. He is the father of the Indo-Arabic numeral system, which is universally used today. His well-known works are "Aryabhatiya" and "Arya-siddhanta". It was inspired by the name of the first Indian unmanned satellite launched.
Kidinnu is a Mesopotamian scientist who lived in the fourth century BC, whose name was given to a Lunar crater with a surface area of more than Croatia (60 km2), made lots of contributions to astronomy and mathematics, and is considered the “Father of science”.
Anaximander from Miletus is both a natural philosopher and a nature researcher. He has made breakthroughs in both areas. He is the first person to lead science and study the universe with a different eye. Furthermore, he is considered by many scientists and historians as the “Founder of astronomy” and is the philosopher who first developed a systematic philosophical view of cosmology and the world. He was the first to introduce the term “Arkhe” to philosophy.
Claudius Ptolemy (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαίος, Klaudios Ptolemy) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist from Alexandria. He wrote about a dozen scientific treatises, three of which became crucial for Byzantine, Islamic, and Western European science. It is estimated that he lived 100-170 AD.