Jia Xian (Simplified Chinese: 贾宪, Traditional Chinese: 賈憲, Pinyin Alphabet: Jiǎ Xiàn, Wade-Giles /Beijing Chinese: Chia Hsien; 1010-1070) was a Chinese mathematician and astronomer. Besides the fact that he succeeded in defining Pascal's triangle in the eleventh century, he made many mathematical inventions and astronomical discoveries.
Brahmagupta (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मगुप) (598 – 668 AD) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He has two important works on mathematics and astronomy, the theoretical “Brāhmasphuṣasiddhānta (628)” and the more practical “Khaṇḍakhādyaka (665)”. Brahmagupta is the scientist who first gave the rules for trading with zero. Since the proofs are not offered, it is not known where Brahmagupta's mathematics was derived from.
Aryabhata (Devanagari/Indian and Nepalese alphabet: आर्यभट) (476 – 550 AD) was an Indian scientist from the classical Indian traditions of mathematics and astronomy. He is the father of the Indo-Arabic numeral system, which is universally used today. His well-known works are "Aryabhatiya" and "Arya-siddhanta". It was inspired by the name of the first Indian unmanned satellite launched.
Thales of Miletus (624-620 BC/548-545 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. He is known for his belief that everything has a basic principle and his contributions to mathematics and astronomy, claiming that the Earth is a flat disk floating in a vast sea.
Anaximander from Miletus is both a natural philosopher and a nature researcher. He has made breakthroughs in both areas. He is the first person to lead science and study the universe with a different eye. Furthermore, he is considered by many scientists and historians as the “Founder of astronomy” and is the philosopher who first developed a systematic philosophical view of cosmology and the world. He was the first to introduce the term “Arkhe” to philosophy.
Pythagoras of Samos is a mathematician, naturalist, and philosopher who lived in Antiquity. Pythagoras, the owner of geometric and mathematical inventions, also founded the Pythagorean philosophical school. In addition, he was the first scientist who managed to formulate sounds.
Claudius Ptolemy (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαίος, Klaudios Ptolemy) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist from Alexandria. He wrote about a dozen scientific treatises, three of which became crucial for Byzantine, Islamic, and Western European science. It is estimated that he lived 100-170 AD.