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Revising Assumptions: Starfish, Once Thought Headless, May Surprise Us

For generations, naturalists have grappled with the enigmatic question of which part of a sea star, often referred to as a "Starfish," constitutes its head. When examining a worm or a fish, it's readily apparent which end serves as the head and which as the tail. However, the sea star, boasting five identical arms, each capable of leading its movement across the ocean floor, has left this conundrum unresolved. The sea star's peculiar body structure has left some to ponder whether it possesses a head at all.

Research Reveals Female Frogs’ Strategies for Fending Off Unwanted Mating

In numerous species, there are variations in breeding preferences and strategies between males and females. When male aggression towards unreceptive females takes a wrong turn, it can lead to reproductive failure and, in certain instances, the death of the females involved. This phenomenon appears to be especially relevant among explosive breeding anuran species, which encompass around 4,500 species of frogs and toads. These species have been associated with a heightened risk of female mortality during mating.


Aristotle is an Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist. He is a respectable figure in the history of philosophy and has worked in many fields. According to him, natural philosophy is the most important for philosophers. In addition to natural sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, zoology (Animal science), botany (Plant science), psychology, political science, ethics; logic, metaphysics; history, literary knowledge, and rhetoric, he was interested in social fields such as.