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Aristotle is an Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist. He is a respectable figure in the history of philosophy and has worked in many fields. According to him, natural philosophy is the most important for philosophers. In addition to natural sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, zoology (Animal science), botany (Plant science), psychology, political science, ethics; logic, metaphysics; history, literary knowledge, and rhetoric, he was interested in social fields such as.

APA 7: Çarıkçıoğlu, A. E. (2023, April 25). Aristoteles. PerEXP Teamworks. [Article Link]

His life and contributions

Aristotle (Or “Aristo” for short), (384 BC, Stagira- 322 BC, Chalcis), was a Greek philosopher and scientist whose thoughts guided Western intellectual history for two thousand years. Alexander the Great’s grandfather was the son of Nicomachus (Nikomachos), the palace physician of the Third Amintas. In 367 BC, he became a student at the Platonic Academy in Athens and lived there for 20 years. After Plato died in 348/347 BC, he returned to Macedonia, where he taught the young Alexander. In 335, he founded his school, the “Lyceum”, in Athens. His intellectual range was wide enough to cover most types of science and art. [1]

Aristotle was respectively interested in physics, chemistry, biology, zoology (Animal science), botany (Plant science), psychology, political theory, ethics, logic, metaphysics, history, literary theory, and rhetoric (The art of saying words). He invented the method of “Formal logic”. For this method, the “Syllogistic” (Comparison: reaching a third proposition from two propositions whose accuracy is known, which was considered the “Whole of logic” until the nineteenth century.) he designed a system known as, but which is no longer used. His work in the field of both observational and theoretical biology also couldn’t be developed until the nineteenth century. His theories on ethics and politics, especially ethical virtues and human development (“Understanding of happiness”), continue to be influential in philosophical discussions.

According to his era, he was a prolific writer. Among his main surviving works are “Organon”, “De Anima (On the Soul)”, “Physics”, “Metaphysics”, Ethics to Nikomachos”, Ethics to Eudemos”, ”Magna Moralia“, ”Politics“, ”Rhetoric“ and ”Poetry“, as well as many Decrees on natural history and science. [2]

Aristotelian physics and metaphysics

Aristotle divided the theoretical sciences into three groups: physics, mathematics, and theology. “Physics” in Aristotle’s understanding was equivalent to what would be called “Natural philosophy” or “Nature study”. This meaning, which Aristotle assigned to physics, covers not only the field of modern physics, but also biology, chemistry, geology, psychology, and even meteorology. However, “Metaphysics” is not particularly included in Aristotle’s classification. Indeed, he never uses this word in his catalog, which was first recorded after his death, as the name of the works listed after “Physics”. In addition to the mentioned situation, he recognizes the branch of philosophy called “Metaphysics” today and speaks of it as “The first of the philosophies”. He defines metaphysics as “The discipline that studies’ existence as it is”. [3]

Aristotle’s contributions to physical science are no less impressive than his research on life science. In works such as ”On Generation and Corruption“ and ”On the Heavens”, he presented a picture of the world that includes many features inherited from his pre-Socratic predecessors.

Empedocles (490-430 BC) adopted the view that the universe is essentially composed of different combinations of earth, water, air, and fire (The four main elemental elements). According to Empedocles, each element is described by having a unique pair consisting of the four basic qualities of heat, cold, wetness, and dryness: the earth is dry with cold, water is wet with cold, the air is wet with hot, and fire is dry with hot. Each element has its natural place in an ordinary “Cosmos” (Universe), and each of them has an innate tendency to move specifically to this natural place. Thus, while earthly solids naturally fall, they rise even higher unless fires are prevented. Other movements of the elements are also possible, but each of them “Involves violence” (A legacy of Aristotle’s distinction is also preserved in the modern contrast of the Decoupling between natural and violent death.). [4]

The Christian-Aristotelian cosmos

Aristotle’s view of the universe owes a lot to Plato’s dialogue “Timaeus”. From this point of view, the Earth is at the center of the universe, and the Moon, Sun, and other planets are arrayed around it; a series of concentric crystal spheres (Very similar to the expression “Eight domes orbiting the Earth” in the Ptolemaic Model of the Universe.) returns in. The heavenly bodies are not compounds of the four terrestrial elements, but are composed of a superior “Fifth element” or “Essence”. In addition, celestial bodies have spirits or supernatural intelligence that guide them in their travels through the universe. [5]

This view has deeply influenced two-fifteenth-century Christian, Islamic, and fifteen-seventeenth-century philosophies and celestial science research. The greatest examples are Thomas of Aquinas, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Al-Farabi, Al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Haysem, and Johannes Kepler. Even the best scientific works of Aristotle are now only interested historically. The lasting value of his short books and teachings (Such as “Physics”) lies not in their specific scientific claims but in their philosophical analysis of some concepts that deal with the conditions of different periods – ”Place”, “Time”, “Causality”, “Determinism”, etc. [6]


  1. DICTIONARY ENTRY Kenny, A. J.P. and Amadio, . Anselm H. (2023, April 24). AristotleEncyclopedia Britannica. [Britannica]
  2. DICTIONARY ENTRY Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia. (2021, September 21). Aristotle summaryEncyclopedia Britannica. [Britannica]
  3. WEBSITE Saber Es Práctico. (2023, March 2 ). ¿Quién fue Aristóteles? ¿Qué hizo? (Resumen). Saber Es Práctico. [Saber Es Práctico]
  4. DICTIONARY ENTRY Biografías y Vidas. (n.d.). Aristóteles. Biografías y Vidas. [Biografías y Vidas]
  5. PDF FILE Ankara Üniversitesi. (n.d.). Antik Yunanda Astronomi-Kozmoloji. Ankara Üniversitesi. [Ankara Üniversitesi]
  6. WEBSITE Olpak, M. A. (2018, November 1). Kopernik, Kepler, Galileo, Newton: Bilimsel Dünya Görüşünün Oluşumunu Nasıl Etkilediler? Bilim ve Aydınlanma Akademisi. [Bilim ve Aydınlanma Akademisi]

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