Pythagoras of Samos is a mathematician, naturalist, and philosopher who lived in Antiquity. Pythagoras, the owner of geometric and mathematical inventions, also founded the Pythagorean philosophical school. In addition, he was the first scientist who managed to formulate sounds.

APA 7: Çarıkçıoğlu, A. E. (2023, April 21). Pisagor. PerEXP Teamworks. [Article Link]

Who is Pythagoras?

Pythagoras; [570 BC, Samos, Ionia (Greece)- 500-490 BC, Metapontum, Lucanium (Italy)] was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and the founder of the “Pythagorean Brotherhood”. Although religious by nature, he is a pioneer of the principles that influenced the thought of Plato and Aristotle and contributed to the development of mathematics and Western rational philosophy. Information about Pythagoras can be accessed from contemporary authors. Sections of his life could only be transmitted piecemeal in the fourth century BC, about 150 years after his death. [1] Pythagoras probably went to Egypt and Babylon in his youth. The tyrant of Samos (the name given to Greek dictators.) He immigrated to Southern Italy around 532 BC to escape the rule of Polycrates and established his ethical-political academy in Croton (today’s Italy, pronounced Crotone/”Croton”). Due to the anti-Pythagorean sentiment in Crotone, he fled that city to Metapontum (now Metaponto, Italy) in 510 BC, where he passed away. [2]

His doctrines and more

It is difficult to distinguish the teachings of Pythagoras from the doctrines of his disciples. Pythagoras himself probably did not even write a single book, and the Pythagoreans supported the authority and disciplines of their leader on various grounds and at all times without any discrimination. However, the name Pythagoras is often referred to for his theory of the functional importance of numbers in the objective world and music.

Other discoveries usually attributed to him (For example, the disproportion of the edge and diagonal of a square and the “Pythagorean Theorem” for right triangles) were probably developed by the Pythagorean School after him. More likely, the bulk of the intellectual tradition that stems from Pythagoras himself belongs to mystical wisdom rather than scientific wisdom. [3]


The basis and characteristics of Pythagoreanism are controversial. The combination of the different characteristics they exhibit is Deceptively confusing. However, his fame is based on some ideas attributed to him since Antiquity, which are not understood correctly, but have a lot of influence. Some of these ideas are:

  1. The metaphysics of numbers and the understanding that reality, including music and astronomy, is mathematical at the deepest level by nature (Everything in the universe consists of numbers.),
  2. The use of philosophy as a means of spiritual purification,
  3. The heavenly destiny of the soul and possibilities,
  4. Tetractys: The highest number for Pythagoreans was 10. Number 10 comprises the sum of the first four numbers, 1, 2, 3, and 4. These numbers enable the formation of an equilateral triangle called a “Tetracty “. Many of the Pythagoreans worshiped this triangle, which they called “Tetracty” according to the narratives.
  5. The Golden Ratio: As architect Mehmet Suat Bergil wrote in his book “The Golden Ratio in Nature, Science and Art”: “The ratio of a person’s height to his whole body and belly, the ratio of the long and short edges of a pentagram, the ratio of the long and short edges of a rectangle, they are all the same.” that is his opinion. [4]
  6. The Harmony of the Spheres: It was an opinion based on the fact that the universe is in apparent harmonic order. Pythagoras believed that numbers revealed this order. And he thought harmony was formed, and the resulting order was in balance. This belief turned out to be partially true. The frequencies of gamma rays emitted by an explosion recorded in 2008 have been converted into music thanks to the LAT telescope.
  7. Pythagorean Theorem: The famous equation “a2+b2=c2“. Here, c represents the linear measurement of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides of the triangle. Stringed instruments can be shown as real-life examples of the theorem. “As the length of the wire increases, the vibration increases.” it is based on the principle.
  8. The order is that the Pythagoreans (Pythagorean Brothers) adhere to the teachings with strict adherence and secrecy. [5]

Some conclusions on Pythagoras

As a result, although he performed mystical actions with about 6,000 people affiliated with him, Pythagoras had some accurate beliefs, ideas, theories, and predictions with his students. In this regard, he has made extensive contributions to various fields, especially mathematics, and astronomy. He and the brotherhood he founded have managed to become one of the pioneers of the scientific world by spreading, defending, and developing objections to the teachings that he thinks are true and that lead people to conceive despite all kinds of pressures. [6]


  1. DICTIONARY ENTRY Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2023, January 5). PythagorasEncyclopedia Britannica. [Britannica]
  2. DICTIONARY ENTRY Thesleff, H. (2020, May 15). PythagoreanismEncyclopedia Britannica. [Britannica]
  3. WEBSITE Elçi, A., Kayalı, Ö. (2020, December 19). Pisagor Teoremi Nedir? Pisagor Kimdir?. Evrim Ağacı. [Evrim Ağacı]
  4. BOOK Bergil, M. S. (1988). Altın oran: doğda, bilimde, sanatta. Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları
  5. BOOK Ferguson, K. (2010). Pythagoras: His Lives and the Legacy of a Rational Universe. Icon Books Company.
  6. BOOK Arslan, A. (2006). İlkçağ Felsefe Tarihi: Sokrates Öncesi ve Yunan Felsefesi. İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları

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