**APA 7:** Çarıkçıoğlu, A. E. (2023, May 6). *Aryabhata*. PerEXP Teamworks. [Article Link]

## His life and works

Aryabhata, also referred to as “Aryabhata I” or “Aryabhata the Elder” (476, was probably born in Ashmaka or Kusumapura, India.), an astronomer is also the oldest Indian mathematician whose work and history are available to modern scientists. The two names at the beginning of the paragraph are used to distinguish him from another tenth-century Indian mathematician of the same name. He became famous in Kusumapura, near Patalipurta (Patna), the capital of the Gupta Empire at that time, where he wrote at least two works: “Aryabhatiya (499)” and “Arya-siddhanta”, whose name has only been transmitted to the present day. ^{[1]}

## His contributions and legacies to science

“Aryabhatasiddhanta” spread mainly in the northwest of India, and then had a profound impact on the development of Islamic astronomy through the Sassanian Dynasty in Iran (224-651). To some extent, Varahamihira (His star shone in 550, Aryabhata’s countryman is a philosopher and scientist.), Bhaskara I (Often mentioned by name around 629) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. Brahmagupta (He has lived between 598-665. He is the pole of Indian astronomy.) and preserved in the works of scientists with other thought. It is one of the oldest astronomical studies, linking the beginning of each day to midnight. ^{[2]}

The “Aryabhatiya” was especially popular in South India, where numerous mathematicians wrote commentaries during the following millennium. The work is written in the form of a couplet (Two strings) verse and takes mathematics and astronomy to its center. After an introduction that includes astronomical tables, Aryabhata’s phonemic (Arranged according to the difference in pronunciation) number representation system, in which numbers are represented by a monosyllabic consonant-vowel, the work is divided into three parts: Ganita (“Mathematics”), Kala-kriya (“Time Calculations”) and Gola (“Sphere”). ^{[3]}

## What he tells in Aryabhatiya

Aryabhata names the first 10 decimal digits in the “Ganita” and gives algorithms for obtaining square and cubic roots using the decimal number system. Then he takes up geometric measurements -he uses 62,832 / 20,000 (= 3.1416) for π, this approximate number is very close to the real value: 3.14159- and describes the properties of two circles intersected by similar right-angled triangles. In addition, he himself obtained one of two methods for creating the sine table using Ptolemy’s Theorem. He also noticed that the second-order sinus difference is proportional to the sinus.

Mathematical series, quadratic equations, compound interest (Involving a quadratic equation), ratio-to-ratio and the solution of various linear equations are among the arithmetic and algebraic topics included in this section. The mathematical series, quadratic equations, compound interest (Involving a quadratic equation), ratio-to-ratio and the solution of various linear equations are included in this section. Aryabhata’s general solution for linear indeterminate equations, which Bhaskara calls “Kuttakara (Pulverizer/sprayer)”, is to decode the problem with successively smaller coefficients -This method is essentially related to the Euclidean algorithm and the method of continued fractions.- it consisted of dividing it into new problems. ^{[4]}

Aryabhata turned to astronomy with the “Kala-kriya”, especially evaluating the planetary motion along the ecliptic. Topics include definitions of various time units, eccentric (Exocentric) and epicyclic (Outer circle) models of planetary motion (Hipparchus-like), planetary longitude corrections for different terrestrial locations, and the theory of “Masters of hours and days” (An astrological concept used to determine the appropriate times for action). The following topics are discussed: Decrees of various time units, eccentric (Eccentric) and epicyclic (Outer circle) models of planetary motion (Hipparchus-like), planetary longitude corrections for different terrestrial locations, and the theory of “Lords of hours and days” (An astrological concept used to determine the appropriate times for action).

The “Aryabhatiya” ends with spherical astronomy, which is included in the “Gola”, and in this section plane trigonometry is applied to spherical geometry by projecting points, lines on the surface of the sphere into the appropriate planes. Decrees include the prediction of Solar and Lunar eclipses and a clear statement that the apparent westward motion of the stars is caused by the rotation of the spherical Earth around its axis. Aryabhata also made an accurate determination by linking the brightness of the Moon and planets to reflected sunlight. ^{[5]}

## Aryabhata satellite

Aryabhata is the first unmanned Earth satellite made by India. The main part of our section, AD 5. it is named after the leading Indian astronomer and mathematician of the century. The satellite was assembled at Peenya near Bangalore, located in the south of India, but was launched from inside the Soviet Union by a Russian-made rocket on April 19, 1975. The Aryabhata satellite weighed 794 pounds (360 kg) and was used to investigate conditions in the Earth’s ionosphere (70 km to 400 km of the atmosphere, where there are ions and free electrons in quantities that reflect electromagnetic waves), measure neutrons from the Sun, gamma rays, and conduct research in X-ray astronomy. Due to a malfunction in the satellite’s electrical system, its scientific equipment had to be turned off during the fifth day it was in orbit. Nevertheless, a lot of useful information could have been collected during this five-day period. ^{[6]}

## Resources

Hayashi, T. (2023, January 1).^{DICTIONARY ENTRY}*Aryabhata*.*Encyclopedia Britannica*. [Britannica]Montoya, L. (2022, September 15).^{WEBSITE}*Aryabhata*. Historia Y Biografía De. [Historia Y Biografía De]Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi. (n.d.).^{PDF FILE}*Aryabhata*. Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi. [Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi]Beery, J. L. (2009). Sums of Powers of Positive Integers. In^{JOURNAL}*Mathematical Association of America*. [Mathematical Association of America]Vuppala, S. (2006). The Aryabhata Algorithm Using Least Absolute Remainders.^{JOURNAL}*arXiv.org*. [arXiv.org]Indian Space Research Organisation. (n.d.).^{WEBSITE}*Aryabhata*. Indian Space Research Organisation. [Indian Space Research Organisation]